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The British and American Battle

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British and American Trails throughout The Battle

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Background:


The Battle of Long Island took place on August 27,1776. The Battle of Long Island was also known as The Battle of Brooklyn Heights or the Battle of Brooklyn.This battle was the first major battle in the American Revolutionary War shortly after the Declaration of Independence. The war was fought between the British and the American Continental Army.


The Battle:

  • As George Washington had thought, British forces under General William Howe departed from Halifax in spring 1776 and went towards New York City. They entered the harbor in late June and on July 2 established headquarters on Staten Island. Later, Richard Howearrived with additional forces. The British had left for Staten Island. Only the Commanders knew the plan, Not even the Officers knew. The british consisted of 10,000 men who spread out over two miles. Over a period of several weeks the British army grew to 32,000 men, including more than 8,000. Washington had moved the Continental Army from Boston after the British evacuation. He noticed that New York City would be difficult to defend, but the strategy forced the effort. The Americans couldn't decide on wether to go to Manhatten, or Brooklyn Heights area of Long Island to the East.

  • The Americans were unsure of where the British would choose to strike first. On August 22, the British plan was clear. Soldiers were transported from Staten Island to Long Island by Gravesend Bay, Although on the waters off New York City, General Howe exchanged fire with Americans on Manhattan. Within a few days, 20,000 British soldiers came together in the local area of the village of Flatbush. The American army of 10,000 was deployed in a series of given up positions on Brooklyn Heights and spread across the surrounding Heights of Guan . Several break outs of fire occurred between small bands of the opposing forces over the following days. On the night of August 26, British forces under General Howe were able to take advantage of information provided by local Loyalists, who identified an unprotected pass leading up to the Heights of Guan. During the night British soldiers managed to gain a position between American forces on Guan and the main force on Brooklyn Heights. In the daylight of August 27 the British opened fire on The Americans who were shocked and who quickly recognized what was going on.

  • An American commander William Alexander of Pennsylvania, fought effectively for a while, but was slowly held onto by numerous British forces. It was obvious that the disaster could be stopped only by retreating down the hill and across the swamplands by Gowanus Creek.This would expose the Americans to deadly fire from the British in the hills. To provide cover for the retreat, Alexander and Major Mordecai Gist led a band of 250 Soldiers from Maryland on a direct fire against the British lines. The Americans broke under fire, but regrouped and bought time to allow the bulk of the army to leave. Alexander was eventually surrounded and he surrendered, and Sullivan was captured. The British had won.

The Outcome:

The British drove the Americans away from Brooklyn and out of New York. Knowing the British were going to attack, Washington led his forces to New York City. Howe had 32,000 men, and Washington had fewer than 20,000 poorly trained troops and no Navy. The Americans had no chance at all. The British had a strong navy and this was a big help to them. The Americans needed to be more trained and organized and essentially needed a stronger Leader. The British won the battle, they then stopped instead of going to chase the Americans. That let the Americans escape with their troops.

The Generals:

  • William Howe was one of the British Generals during the Revolutionary War. Howe was Born on August 10, 1729, in England. He was the child of King George The Third who was the british king during the Revolutionary War. Before Howe was sent into the Revolutionary War, he was sympathetic for the English Colonists but as a solider, he had to fight against the colonies. Howe came to the colonies on May 25, 1775, as a Major General. He led the British troops in attacking Breed's Hill. The Americans fought bravely, but they eventually ran low on supplies and the British finally had another victory. Many British soldiers died during the battle, but General Howe was a great leader Howe became a full General in October, 1775, and he became the temporary Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in the 13 Colonies. When George Washington won a battle at Dorchester Heights, General Howe ordered his troops to go back to Canada until they could attack again. Howe became the regular Commander- in- Chief in April, 1776. In 1776, General Howe and his troops began the Battle of Long Island. In July, they landed on Staten Island. In August, they fought against General George Washington in the Battle, The British won the battle, but then they stopped instead of going to chase the Americans. That let the Americans escape with their troops. General Howe won the important battle of White Plains against George Washington but he again did not chase the Americans and destroy the American Army. He took his troops back to Fort Washington. They captured the Fort, including 3,000 prisoners and many supplies. General Howe was in many battles with many victories. Howe died on July 12, 1814.

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  • George Washington was born February 22, 1732, and died December 14, 1799, Washington was the military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. Washington led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and watched over the Constitution in 1787. Washington served as the first President of the United States of America in 1789 to1797. Washington was head of creating a strong, well-financed national government that stayed neutral in the wars raging in Europe, Restrained rebellion and won respect from Americans of all types. His leadership established many forms of government that have been used today, such as using a Cabinet System and delivering an inaugural adress. Washington is universally regarded as the "Father of his Country".


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